Frequency Electronics reveals a better clock

Frequency Electronics reveals a better clock

Disclosure: As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. This page may contain affiliate links, which means I may receive a commission if you click a link and purchase something that I have recommended. There is no additional cost to you whatsoever.… a glittered ball drops over Time’s Square in New York City and thousands and thousands celebrated with kisses, hugs and cheers of Happy New Year! The western 2023 new 12 months was seven hours earlier in Jerusalem, 9 hours earlier in Dubai and the final seconds of December thirty first 2022 visited Baker and Howland islands within the South Pacific. But even in case you missed all of those celebrations you would rejoice in response to one other calendar. Russian Old New Year (Novy God) begins on January 14th.

Chinese 12 months of the water rabbit begins on January twenty second, Islamic Hijri New Year begins at dusk on July nineteenth (read this guide on Muslim time), the Mayan New 12 months is on July twenty sixth and Hebrew New Year (Rosh Hashana) 5784 begins at sunset September fifteenth.  With all of those new years to select from you would possibly ask your self, what’s so particular about December thirty first? It’s not the shortest day within the 12 months. It’s not when Sirius rises above the nice pyramids of Giza or when the Nile floods. It’s not time to plant crops. Sunrise and Sunsets should not aligned with Stonehenge. Some years it’s a brand new moon, different years it’s full or someplace in between.

One of the primary philosophical questions my youngster requested was, “How did every little thing get created in solely seven days?” Remembering extra about physics than faith I fell again on a solution that occurred to be among the many few the place folks of science and and other people of religion agree. I mentioned, “Time is bizarre,” however I’d simply as nicely have quoted the Book of Kohelet

(Ecclesiastes) 3:11 “He hath made each factor stunning in his time: additionally he hath set the world of their coronary heart, in order that no man can discover out the work that God maketh from the start to the top.” 

Nature Time

The ancients measured time by observing nature. It made sense to separate the day from the night time and additional divide as of late into instances of daybreak, dawn, sundown, nightfall and night time. Knowing the phases of the moon helped folks know the tides and the very best instances to fish and hunt and understanding the seasons tells us when is an efficient time to plant and harvest. This is from the primary a part of the identical chapter of Ecclesiastes. Pete Seeger used these phrases in a people music made common by The Byrds:

To each factor there’s a season, and a time to each goal underneath the heaven:
A time to be born, and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted;
A time to kill, and a time to heal; a time to interrupt down, and a time to construct up;
A time to weep, and a time to chortle; a time to mourn, and a time to bop;
A time to solid away stones, and a time to collect stones collectively; a time to embrace, and a time to chorus from embracing;
A time to get, and a time to lose; a time to maintain, and a time to solid away;
A time to rend, and a time to stitch; a time to maintain silence, and a time to talk;
A time to like, and a time to hate; a time of warfare, and a time of peace.
 Enter arithmetic

About 6000 years in the past the Sumerians of southern Iraq invented a sexagesimal (base 60) counting system. Twelve instances the variety of finger on one hand turned the premise for our 24 hour clock, our 60 minute hour and our 60 second minute. Sometime round 3500 B.C.E. the neolithic people of Ireland created mound and stone constructions aligned with celestial occasions however in what will be the world’s oldest sundial, they divided daylight into eight sectors and seem to have divided the 12 months into 16 months.

The French tried to decimalize time within the late 1700s however that went about in addition to the U.S try to go metric within the Seventies. If the variety of heartbeats in a day (86,400+/-), variety of days in a lunar month (29.53) and variety of lunar months in a 12 months (12.3601) and variety of days in a 12 months (365.2425) had been good spherical numbers divisible by the variety of our fingers and toes, it might have been easy. But it doesn’t and it isn’t. Arguments over easy methods to align human time with pure time have gone on for hundreds of years, dividing religions and inciting wars.

Let’s all comply with disagree

Saint Nicholas of Myra Turkey was among the many members of the council of Nicea when it voted to interrupt from the Jewish calendar in order that Easter not aligned with the passover full moon. The calendar they adopted inherited flaws launched by Roman emperor Julias Ceasar whose calendar assumed {that a} 12 months is 365.25 days lengthy. The precise size is about 365.2425 days. The calendar misplaced about 11 minutes every year till Pope Gregory XIII consulted the Vatican astronomer and left us a easy equation to compensate for the drift and eliminated 10 days from the calendar of October 1582.

Computer programmers would mistakenly use Julias Ceasar’s flawed leap-year equations for no less than 441 years. The colonial United States and majority protestant components of Europe didn’t settle for the brand new calendar till September 1752 when the “stolen days” triggered riots over misplaced wages. 

The Eastern Orthodox church remained with the Julian calendar. So by 2023 the Orthodox Christmas and New Year arrive about two weeks after the western equal.

As the tempo of life modified and other people journeyed farther into the world they wanted to discover a strategy to mimic and enhance on pure timekeepers. At the equator, the earth turns at roughly 1000mph (16 miles/second.) So even when a navigator will get an ideal repair on the angle of the solar or star, a 1 second time error may put them 16 miles east or west of the place they suppose they’re. In 1714 after the British Navy ran aground on the lengthy Plymouth peninsula one too many instances, the British parliament voted to create a reward for anybody who can invent a clock which stayed synchronized with celestial time even in tough seas removed from house.

The e-book Longitude by David Sobel explains this wrestle and the way the unusual customized of dropping a ball helped ships synchronize their clocks with shore time with out going ashore. Ships weren’t the one technique of transportation which required correct clocks. Several prepare accidents and close to misses drove folks to create a normal railroad time. 

Pope Gregory’s calendar bugs

With telescopes made out of stone, it could have taken neolithic builders 500 years to note errors brought on by the gradual precession of the earth’s axis however higher instruments revealed that there are extra issues in heaven and earth by no means dreamt of by Pope Gregory XIII. His calendar can be out of step with the heavens. The Earth isn’t an ideal sphere, its orbit isn’t spherical, its axis is tilted and wobbles like a high. Our supersize moon strikes north and south, nearer and farther in its elliptical orbit. As the moon and solar drag tides throughout irregular bays and estuaries the friction slows and accelerates the earth’s rotation because the moon, earth and solar orbit shifting facilities of gravity in a dance with common days rising longer till in the future just one hemisphere of the earth will face the moon and life can not depend on our acquainted patterns of tides. 

Atomic time replaces astronomical time

Highly correct atomic clocks ultimately changed astronomical measurements as a foundation for common normal time. Computers, telephones, airline and prepare schedules take their time from an atomic clock. Since 1972 leap seconds have been sometimes added to maintain our normal time aligned with the heavens. Many of us had been too distracted with selfies, celebrations and streaming video to note that the final minute of December 31, 2016 was 61 seconds lengthy.

Unfortunately the software program in our units was designed round 60 second minutes and leap seconds can cause havoc with our technology. To keep away from vexing equivalents of Y2K bugs at random intervals, the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) voted on November 18, 2022 to permit greater than 1 second error between common time (UTC) and astronomical time (UT1.)

What would we do with a greater atomic clock?

In May of 2022 Frequency Electronics, Inc (NASDAQ: FEIM) introduced its subsequent era of transportable Digital Rubidium Atomic Clock (DRAC) appropriate for airborn and satellite tv for pc purposes. (Remember, the UAE also plans to build a colony on Mars). Such tremendous correct clocks can enhance current purposes akin to drones, self-driving vehicles and satellite tv for pc navigation.

It can be used to make radio communications extra resistant to interference, for higher detection of gravitational waves and presumably in phased array radio telescopes.

Existing world Positioning System (GPS) and Galileo satellite tv for pc navigation techniques depend on cesium atomic clocks that are already exact sufficient to measure gravitational and velocity time dilation as predicted by Albert Einstein.

The clock on board certainly one of these satellites is barely slower as a result of it’s shifting relative to us however barely sooner as a result of gravity makes time run just a bit bit slower down right here on earth. As Inside Science explains, these relativistic factors balance out to a net gain of 38 microseconds per day. There is nothing improper with the clock and these errors aren’t brought on by difficult astronomical actions.

For these satellites time is definitely working 38 microseconds slower per day. You would possibly suppose we may 38 microseconds of relativistic time dilation however throughout that 0.000038 seconds, mild travels about 7 miles.

Time is bizarre.